Author Archives: Michelle Carmody

About Michelle Carmody

Michelle Carmody is an interdisciplinary scholar, trained in area studies (Latin America) with a thematic specialty in human rights. Her first book, Human Rights, Transitional Justice and the Reconstruction of Political Power in Latin America (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), looks at how state actors translated human rights demands into public policy in the form of transitional justice. Her current research is international in scope and uses Amnesty International as a window onto how and why individuals from different geographical, political, and cultural contexts came together and defined what it meant to be a human rights activist and a human rights organization.

Making Human Rights Effective? Amnesty International, “Aid and Trade,” and the Shaping of Professional Human Rights Activism, 1961–1983

Abstract: This article takes Amnesty International’s “Aid and Trade” debate during the late 1970s and early 1980s as a window onto the ways that human rights activists thought about their work and how they understood their organization. It examines the way they grappled with their relationship in to expanding governmental action on human rights, and the meaning of the concepts “effectiveness” and “impartiality,” which were central to Amnesty’s founding. Continue reading →